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Contemporary Indonesian Phonology and Morphology: Some Evidence of Vocabulary Change and Innovations
The Roundtable Conference, Leiden School, Leiden, 26' 28 Mar 2008
Bambang Kaswanti Purwo
Atma Jaya Catholic University
For almost half a century Indonesian are not able to refrain from the need to bear together with the mass and rapid influx of English loanwords. As 1970s there is a strong pressure, initiated by simply Pusat Bahasa (the Vocabulary Center), pertaining to the vary from Dutch-soundlike loanwords, such as tradisionil, universil, komersiil, into English-soundlike loanwords, such as tradisional, general, komersial, correspondingly. Although some Dutch-based forms like riel are much more likely to be taken than the more English-soundlike genuine, forms like terealisir have been completely replaced by simply terealisasi, terorganisir by terorganisasi, memproklamirkan by simply memproklamasikan. The Dutch-based varieties are " prefix in addition verb-rootвЂќ, as the English-based varieties are " prefix & noun-rootвЂќ. A huge selection of verbalized English language loanwords following this pattern (e. g. merevisi, mengklasifikasi, melegitimasi) are fruitful, while the indigenous Indonesian verbs with this kind of pattern, verbs whose base is a noun, are not effective: e. g. mengelas, mengetik (the transitive type, the noun getting instrumental) and membatu, mendarat (the intransitive type, the noun staying the destination). With these examples to illustrate, the modern day paper is interested to see to what degree the mass and fast influx of English loanwords has shaken the Indonesian phonology and morphology.
1 . Introduction
For almost half a hundred years Indonesian cannot refrain from being forced to bear together with the mass and rapid influx of English loanwords. There have been two continuous strong streams of exterior influence on Indonesian: Costa da prata and Nederlander first, after that English. The Dutch affect took place immediately after Indonesian self-reliance until the end of the 60s, and The english language took over the dominance. The stream have not only recently had an affect upon the phonology, but as well the morphology of Indonesian.
2 . Phonology
The basic (base) word improvements in Indonesian is of 12 types (Halim 1974, because quoted in Lauder 1995a). One of the striking features is the fact there is no consonant clusters.
|Nomor |Konstruksi Kata |Contoh | |1. |KV-KV |lu-pa | |2. |KV-KVK |ma-kan | |3. |KV-VK |ka-in | |4. |KV-V |ma-u | |5. |KVK-KV |tan-da | |6. |KVK-KVK |lom-pat | |7. |VK-KV |ang-ka | |8. |VK-KVK |ar-wah | |9. |V-KV |i-ni | |10. |V-KVK |a-nak | |11. |V-VK |a-ir | |12. |V-V |i-a
(Halim 1974: 182)
A chain of two consonants may be possible, as exemplified in constructions 5' almost 8, but in constrained combinations. Halim's study of 500 terms of two-syllable structure shows that the permissible sequence of two rimant is of two types. The first type (70% of the occurrences), exemplified in 5' 7, is a nasal followed by its homorganic consonant. The second type (30%) is definitely initiated having a trill (e. g. arti), sibilant-like rimant (e. g. pasti, bahwa) or voiceless velar (e. g. paksa, waktu).
The essential syllable framework is Sixth is v, VC, CV, CVC. Lauder's (1995b) frequency counting shows that CV and CVC are predominant. Of 32. 489 base words (entries) in Kamus Besar Kode Indonesia (KBBI) 1993 CV occurs forty-nine. 52%, CVC 33. 48%, VC 5. 05%, and V 4. 92%. The consonant groupings emerging about 1990s just reach three or more. 65%. The greatest syllable structure with...
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